|Janus head on a silver quadrigatus coin (225 BCE)|
Ancient Roman polytheism was a bit like the English language, insofar as "new" Gods were continually borrowed and absorbed into the Religio Romana from other pantheons, just as English continually borrows and absorbs foreign words, without being particularly concerned with maintaining linguistic "purity". Similarly, the traditional mindset of Roman spirituality is open and diverse, and it is perhaps for this reason that there are more Deities associated with Roman polytheism than can possibly be counted. Thus, it is impossible to list all of them. Even if a historian was able to tell you the name of every Deity recorded from the Roman era (and such a list would surely list Deities in the hundreds if not the thousands) this would still not comprise a complete list, because from the polytheistic world view every river, every grove, every force of nature is divine and likely has some kind of spirit, or Deity, attached to it. Due to these facts the following attempt to list over 100 of the more well known Roman Deities is not comprehensive:
- Adonis: a God associated with the cycle of life, death and rebirth; beautiful lover of Venus who dies but is reborn every spring.
- Aesculapius: God of healing.
- Anna Perenna: personification of the year (annus), whose festival on 15 March involved drinking and signing of licentious songs by women.
- Annona: numen / spirit / personification of the food supply.
- Antinous: deified 19 year old (probable) lover of Hadrian; associated with young, masculine beauty, love and homosexuality.
- Apollo: God of light and the sun, healing (and disease), music (especially stringed instruments), poetry, archery and prophecy.
- Attis: Cybele's consort.
- Aurora: Goddess of dawn.